Structure: Resequencing can do a lot to improve understanding

Nature of edit  Minimal editorial intervention – with the requirement that, nevertheless, the text is easily understood by both native and non-native English speakers

Type of copy  Teacher training

Before

Encouraging student participation

This idea works with students at any level, in pairs and in groups of any number. It can actually help to reduce the noise levels of group work if one or more of the students has a listening or watching brief (see below). Students are given different roles to perform. The roles can be discussed in the whole class first and then, written on slips of paper, handed to individual students or to pairs of students. For example, a higher level student working with a pair of lower level students can be given a slip of paper saying Observer. This student can also get a list of, for example, the phrases the pair could use in the role play dialogue they are about to do. During the pair work, every time the higher level student hears one of the phrases being used, s/he can tick it off the list. After the role play, the observer can give feedback to the pair on which items were used or not used, or who used most, or how well they were pronounced. Other roles a student or pair of students of the same or different levels can be given are: prompter (for when people run out of ideas or language), questioner, summariser, host(ess) (to make sure everyone speaks) and tester or reviewer.

After

Encouraging student participation

This idea works with students at any level, in pairs and in groups of any number. Students are given different roles to perform. It can actually help to reduce the noise levels of group work if one or more of the students has a listening or watching brief as an observer. Other roles a student or pair of students of the same or different levels can be given are: prompter (for when people run out of ideas or language), questioner, summariser, host(ess) (to make sure everyone speaks), and tester or reviewer.

The roles can be discussed in the whole class first and then, written on slips of paper, handed to individual students or to pairs of students. For example, a higher level student working with a pair of lower level students can be given a slip of paper saying Observer. This student can also get a list of, for example, the phrases the pair could use in the role play dialogue they are about to do. During the pair work, every time the higher level student hears one of the phrases being used, s/he can tick it off the list. After the role play, the observer can give feedback to the pair on which items were used or not used, or who used most, or how well they were pronounced.

Problem and solution

The original has clearly been written by an author who has set down their ideas as they have arisen in their mind. Sometimes that can work fine, but in this case, the reader is taken forwards and backwards in time more than once, which makes the author's ideas difficult to assimilate.

To accord with the brief, the editor has merely reordered the sentences, making only those changes to the actual wording that were necessitated by the change in order. This reordering, and the division of the text into two paragraphs, creates a clearer sequence of events that is easier for the reader to understand.